Jean Ignace Isidore Gérard was a French caricaturist, known under the pseudonym of J. J. Grandville. Born in Nancy, he took his penname from his grandparents, who had both been actors. He moved to Paris at the age of 21 and published a series of lithographs under the titles 'Les Tribulations de la Petite Proprieté', 'Les Plaisirs de toutdge' and 'La Sibylle des salons'. One of his best known works is 'Les Métamorphoses du jour', a series of pictures with antropomorphic animals. Grandville was a contributor to a variety of magazines, such as Le Sihouette, L'Artiste, La Caricature, and Le Charivari. By 1835, Grandville focused on book illustration. He has illustrated classics like 'Robinson Crusoe', 'Gulliver's Travels' and the fables of La Fontaine.